Gardening Articles: Care :: Soil, Water, & Fertilizer
Organic Fertilizers (page 2 of 3)
by Lee Reich
Organic Fertilizer Basics
Why fertilize? Fertilizers are necessary make up for nutrients that are naturally carried down into the groundwater by rainfall, carried off into the air as gases, and carried into the kitchen by you. At least 16 nutrient elements are necessary for plant growth, but plants need three -- nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (referred to by the elemental symbols N, P, and K) -- in relatively large quantities. Most soils contain large reserves of the other 13 nutrients -- especially calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, and manganese -- that might also hitchhike along when you fertilize with "the big three."
The only way to know for sure if your garden requires fertilizers is to have the soil tested. The cooperative extension services in most states test garden soil for a nominal fee. Also check telephone directories for "soil testing laboratories."
When to Apply. The best times to apply organic fertilizers are early spring and fall -- or even a few months -- before planting, because that allows time for soil microbes to digest the organic matter and transform nutrients into forms plants can use.
How to Apply. When you apply organic fertilizers, there's no need to dig them deep into the soil. Plants's feeder roots are mostly near the soil surface, and low oxygen levels deep in the soil would retard microbial growth, slowing nutrient release from organic fertilizers. Make an exception to that no-dig rule if a soil test shows that phosphorus levels are low. This nutrient moves very slowly, so the only way to spread it quickly through the root zone is to mix it into the top 6 to 12 inches of soil.
Always wear a dust mask when you apply bonemeal, guano, or any other type of fertilizer that's dusty. All dusts are potential lung irritants.
How Much to Apply. The actual amount to apply will vary, depending on the results of a soil test and the rate of nutrient release from a particular fertilizer. A rough rule is: Apply approximately 2 pounds of actual nitrogen (100 pounds of 10-10-10 contains 10 pounds of "actual" nitrogen) per 1,000 square feet, or 0.2 pounds per 100 square feet. Apply the other key nutrients plants take from soil -- phosphorus and potassium -- at about one-tenth this rate, unless a soil test specifies otherwise.